⚠️ This EIP is not recommended for general use or implementation as it is likely to change.

EIP-4400: ERC-721 Consumable Extension Source

Standard interface extension for ERC-721 consumer role

AuthorDaniel Ivanov
TypeStandards Track
Requires 721


This specification defines standard functions outlining a consumer role for instance(s) of ERC-721. An implementation allows reading the current consumer for a given NFT (tokenId) along with a standardized event for when an consumer has changed. The proposal depends on and extends the existing ERC-721.


Many ERC-721 contracts introduce their own custom role that grants permissions for utilising/consuming a given NFT instance. The need for that role stems from the fact that other than owning the NFT instance, there are other actions that can be performed on an NFT. For example, various metaverses use operator /contributor roles for Land (ERC-721), so that owners of the land can authorise other addresses to deploy scenes to them (f.e. commissioning a service company to develop a scene).

It is common for NFTs to have utility other than simply owning it. That being said, it requires a separate standardized consumer role, allowing compatibility with user interfaces and contracts, managing those contracts.

Having a consumer role will enable protocols to integrate and build on top of dApps that issue ERC-721 tokens.

Example of kinds of contracts and applications that can benefit from this standard are predominantly metaverses that have land and other types of digital assets in those metaverses (scene deployment on land, renting land/characters/clothes/passes to events etc.)


The keywords “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Every contract compliant to the ERC721Consumable extension MUST implement the IERC721Consumable interface. The ** consumer extension** is OPTIONAL for ERC-721 contracts.

/// @title ERC-721 Consumer Role extension
///  Note: the ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0x953c8dfa
interface IERC721Consumable /* is ERC721 */ {

    /// @notice Emitted when `owner` changes the `consumer` of an NFT
    /// The zero address for consumer indicates that there is no consumer address
    /// When a Transfer event emits, this also indicates that the consumer address
    /// for that NFT (if any) is set to none
    event ConsumerChanged(address indexed owner, address indexed consumer, uint256 indexed tokenId);

    /// @notice Get the consumer address of an NFT
    /// @dev The zero address indicates that there is no consumer
    /// Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT
    /// @param _tokenId The NFT to get the consumer address for
    /// @return The consumer address for this NFT, or the zero address if there is none
    function consumerOf(uint256 _tokenId) view external returns (address);

    /// @notice Change or reaffirm the consumer address for an NFT
    /// @dev The zero address indicates there is no consumer address
    /// Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current NFT owner, an authorised
    /// operator of the current owner or approved address
    /// Throws if `_tokenId` is not valid NFT
    /// @param _consumer The new consumer of the NFT
    function changeConsumer(address _consumer, uint256 _tokenId) external;

Every contract implementing the ERC721Consumable extension is free to define the permissions of a consumer (e.g. what are consumers allowed to do within their system) with only one exception - consumers MUST NOT be considered owners, authorised operators or approved addresses as per the ERC-721 specification. Thus, they MUST NOT be able to execute transfers & approvals.

The consumerOf(uint256 _tokenId) function MAY be implemented as pure or view.

The changeConsumer(address _consumer, uint256 _tokenId) function MAY be implemented as public or external.

The ConsumerChanged event MUST be emitted when a consumer is changed.

On every transfer, the consumer MUST be changed to the zero address the same way approve address is changed.

The supportsInterface method MUST return true when called with 0x953c8dfa.


Key factors influencing the standard:

  • Keeping the number of functions in the interfaces to a minimum to prevent contract bloat.
  • Simplicity
  • Gas Efficiency
  • Not reusing or overloading other already existing roles (e.g. owners, operators, approved addresses)


The chosen name resonates with the purpose of its existence. Consumers can be considered entities that utilise the token instances, without necessarily having ownership rights to it.

The other name for the role that was considered was operator, however it is already defined and used within the ERC-721 standard.

Restriction on the Permissions

There are numerous use-cases where a distinct role for NFTs is required that MUST NOT have owner permissions. A contract that implements the consumer role and grants ownership permissions to the consumer renders this standard pointless.

Backwards Compatibility

There are no other standards that define a similar role for NFTs and the name (consumer) is not used by other ERC-721 related standards.

Test Cases

Test cases are implemented in the reference implementation repository here

Reference Implementation

The following is a snippet for reference implementation of the ERC721Consumer extension. The full repository can be found here

//SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC721/ERC721.sol";
import "./IERC721Consumable.sol";

contract ERC721Consumable is IERC721Consumable, ERC721 {

    // Mapping from token ID to consumer address
    mapping (uint256 => address) _tokenConsumers;

    constructor() ERC721("ReferenceImpl", "RIMPL") {
     * @dev See {IERC721Consumable-consumerOf}
    function consumerOf(uint256 _tokenId) view external returns (address) {
        require(_exists(_tokenId), "ERC721Consumable: consumer query for nonexistent token");
        return _tokenConsumers[_tokenId];

     * @dev See {IERC721Consumable-changeConsumer}
    function changeConsumer(address _consumer, uint256 _tokenId) external {
        address owner = this.ownerOf(_tokenId);
        require(msg.sender == owner || msg.sender == getApproved(_tokenId) ||
            isApprovedForAll(owner, msg.sender),
            "ERC721Consumable: changeConsumer caller is not owner nor approved");
        _changeConsumer(owner, _consumer, _tokenId);

     * @dev Changes the consumer
     * Requirement: `tokenId` must exist
    function _changeConsumer(address _owner, address _consumer, uint256 _tokenId) internal {
        _tokenConsumers[_tokenId] = _consumer;
        emit ConsumerChanged(_owner, _consumer, _tokenId);

     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override(IERC165, ERC721) returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC721Consumable).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);

    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId) internal virtual override (ERC721) {
        super._beforeTokenTransfer(_from, _to, _tokenId);

        _changeConsumer(_from, address(0), _tokenId);


Security Considerations

Implementors of the ERC721Consumable standard must consider thoroughly the permissions they give to consumers. Even if they implement the standard correctly and do not allow transfer/burning of NFTs, they might still provide permissions to the consumers that they might not want to provide otherwise and should be restricted to owners only.

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.


Please cite this document as:

Daniel Ivanov, "EIP-4400: ERC-721 Consumable Extension [DRAFT]," Ethereum Improvement Proposals, no. 4400, October 2021. [Online serial]. Available: https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-4400.