EIP-725: ERC-725 Smart Contract Based Account Source

AuthorFabian Vogelsteller, Tyler Yasaka
TypeStandards Track
Requires 165, 173

Simple Summary

A standard interface for a smart contract based account with attachable key value store.


The following describes standard functions for a unique smart contract based account that can be used by humans, groups, organisations, objects and machines.

The standard is divided into two sub standards:

ERC725X: Can execute arbitrary smart contracts using and deploy other smart contracts.

ERC725Y: Can hold arbitrary data through a generic key/value store.


Standardizing a minimal interface for a smart contract based account allows any interface to operate through these account types. Smart contact based accounts following this standard have the following advantages:

  • can hold any asset (native token, e.g. ERC20 like tokens)
  • can execute any smart contract and deploy smart contracts
  • have upgradeable security (through owner change, e.g. to a gnosis safe)
  • are basic enough to work for for a long time
  • are extensible though additional standardisation of the key/value data.
  • can function as an owner/controller or proxy of other smart contracts



ERC165 identifier: 0x44c028fe


Executes a call on any other smart contracts, transfers the blockchains native token, or deploys a new smart contract. MUST only be called by the current owner of the contract.

function execute(uint256 operationType, address to, uint256 value, bytes data)

The operationType can execute the following operations:

  • 0 for call
  • 1 for delegatecall
  • 2 for create2
  • 3 for create

Others may be added in the future.

Triggers Event: ContractCreated if a contract was created



MUST be triggered when execute creates a new contract using the _operationType 1.

event ContractCreated(address indexed contractAddress)


ERC165 identifier: 0x2bd57b73


Returns the data at the specified key.

function getData(bytes32 key) external view returns(bytes value)


Sets the data at a specific key. MUST only be called by the current owner of the contract.

Triggers Event: DataChanged

function setData(bytes32 _key, bytes memory _value) external



MUST be triggered when setData was successfully called.

event DataChanged(bytes32 indexed key, bytes value)


This contract is controlled by an owner. The owner can be a smart contract or an external account. This standard requires ERC173 and should implement the functions:

  • owner() view
  • transferOwnership(address newOwner)
  • and the Event event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner)

Data keys

Data keys, should be the keccak256 hash of a type name. e.g. keccak256('ERCXXXMyNewKeyType') is 0x6935a24ea384927f250ee0b954ed498cd9203fc5d2bf95c735e52e6ca675e047

The ERC725JSONSchema standard defines how keys should be named and generated. This JSON schema can be used to auto decode ERC725Y values from smart contracts for application and smart contract interactions.

Default key values

ERC725 key standards need to be defined within new standards, we suggest the following defaults:

Name Description Key value
SupportedStandards:XYZ Allows to determine standards supported by this contract 0xeafec4d89fa9619884b6b89135626455000000000000000000000000xxxxxxxx, where xxxxxxxx is the 4 bytes identifier of the standard supported Value can be defined by the standard, by default it should be the 4 bytes identifier e.g. 0x7a30e6fc
SupportedStandards:ERC725Account Allows to determine standards supported by this contract 0xeafec4d89fa9619884b6b89135626455000000000000000000000000afdeb5d6, where afdeb5d6 is the 4 bytes part of the hash of keccak256('ERC725Account') Value is the 4 bytes identifier 0xafdeb5d6

Other key examples COULD be:

Name Description Key value
ERC735 A personal claim holder contract (per ERC735) 0x33f5765e0b3f726091f5ab06cd801c2bcd9bf89228534161c70fd7e257b8bfa3 20 bytes value 0xcafecafe69a9FD93d5F28D9Ec85E40f4cb69cafe
ERC780 A registry claim holder contract (per ERC780) 0x62db7b9279d03518c54464b4946aade7cafabff066a90c55b054d5c5ee04c371 20 bytes value 0xcafecafe69a9FD93d5F28D9Ec85E40f4cb69cafe

An SupportedStandards > ERC725Account (See key > value above) is an ERC725 smart contract based account/profile for storing of assets and execution of other smart contracts.

  • ERC173 to be controllable by an owner, that could be am external account, or smart contract
  • ERC725X to interact with other smart contracts
  • ERC725Y to attach data to the account for future extensibility
  • COULD have ERC1271 to be able to verify signatures by the owner (or owner contracts keys).
  • Should fire the event ValueReceived(address indexed sender, uint256 indexed value) if ETH is received.

A full implementation of an ERC725Account can be found found here.


The purpose of an smart contract account is to allow an entity to exist as a first-class citizen with the ability to execute arbitrary contract calls.


Solidity Interfaces

// SPDX-License-Identifier: CC0-1.0
pragma solidity >=0.5.0 <0.7.0;

//ERC165 identifier: `0x44c028fe`
interface IERC725X  /* is ERC165, ERC173 */ {
    event ContractCreated(address indexed contractAddress);
    event Executed(uint256 indexed operation, address indexed to, uint256 indexed  value, bytes data);

    function execute(uint256 operationType, address to, uint256 value, bytes memory data) external;

//ERC165 identifier: `0x2bd57b73`
interface IERC725Y /* is ERC165, ERC173 */ {
    event DataChanged(bytes32 indexed key, bytes value);

    function getData(bytes32 key) external view returns (bytes memory value);
    function setData(bytes32 key, bytes memory value) external;

interface IERC725 /* is IERC725X, IERC725Y */ {


interface IERC725Account /* is IERC725, IERC725Y, IERC1271 */ {
    event ValueReceived(address indexed sender, uint256 indexed value);

Flow chart


Additional References

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.


Please cite this document as:

Fabian Vogelsteller, Tyler Yasaka, "EIP-725: ERC-725 Smart Contract Based Account [DRAFT]," Ethereum Improvement Proposals, no. 725, October 2017. [Online serial]. Available: https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-725.